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A great arc of mountains, consisting of the Himalayas, Hindu Kush, and Patkai ranges define the northern Indian subcontinent. These were formed by the ongoing tectonic collision of the Indian Plate with the Eurasian Plate that started around 50 million years ago. The mountains in these ranges include some of the world's tallest mountains which act as a natural barrier to cold polar winds. They also facilitate the monsoon winds which in turn influence the climate in India. Rivers originating in these mountains flow through the fertile Indo–Gangetic plains. India has eight major mountain ranges having peaks of over 1,000 m (3,281 ft):

1. The Himalayan range, the world's highest mountain range, form India's north and northeastern border, separating it from other countries in Asia. They are one of the world's youngest mountain ranges and extend almost uninterrupted for 2,500 km (1,553 mi), covering an area of 500,000 km2 (193,051 sq mi).

2. The Patkai, or Purvanchal, are situated near India's eastern border with Myanmar. They were created by the same tectonic processes which led to the formation of the Himalayas. There are three hill ranges that come under the Patkai: the Patkai–Bum, the Garo–Khasi–Jaintia and the Lushai hills. The Garo–Khasi range lies in Meghalaya. The highest rainfall place in the world is on this hill.

3. The Vindhya Range lies in central India, extending 1,050 km (652 mi) with the average elevation of 3,000 m (9,843 ft). Geographically, it separates northern India from southern India.

4. The Satpura Range which runs parallel to the Vindhya Range, begins in eastern Gujarat near the Arabian Sea coast and across Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. It extends 900 km (559 mi) with many peaks rising above 1,000 m (3,281 ft).

5. The Aravali Range is the oldest mountain range in India, running across Rajasthan from northeast to southwest direction, extending approximately 800 km (497 mi). The northern end of the range continues as isolated hills and rocky ridges into Haryana, ending near Delhi.

6. The Western Ghats or Sahyadri mountains run along the western edge of India's Deccan Plateau and separate it from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea. The range runs approximately 1,600 km (994 mi) from south of the Tapti River near the Gujarat–Maharashtra border and across Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu to the southern tip of the Deccan peninsula. The average elevation is around 1,000 m (3,281 ft) with the highest peak at Anai Mudi in the Anaimalai Hills 2,695 m (8,842 ft) in Kerala.

7. The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains, which have been eroded and vivisected by the four major rivers of southern India, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri. These mountains extend from West Bengal to Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, along the coast and parallel to the Bay of Bengal. Some of its peaks are over 1,000 m (3,281 ft) in height.

8. The Nilgiri hills in Tamil Nadu lies at the junction of the Eastern and Western Ghats. Good quality of tea is cultivated at the slopes of Nilgiri Hills.



Last Updated on Friday, 25 November 2016 16:58