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The geography of India describes the physical features of India which is entirely contained on the Indian Plate, a major tectonic plate that was formed when it split off from the ancient continent Gondwanaland. About 90 million years ago, during the late Cretaceous Period, the Indian Plate began moving north at about 15 cm/yr. (6 in/yr). About 50 to 55 million years ago, in the Eocene epoch of the Cenozoic Era, the plate collided with Asia after covering a distance of 2,000 to 3,000 km (1,243 to 1,864 mi). The collision with the Eurasian Plate along the modern border between India and Nepal formed the orogenic belt that created the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas.

It is the seventh-largest country in the world, with a total land area of 3,287,263 sq. km. (1,269,219 sq mi). India measures 3,214 km (1,997 mi) from north to south and 2,993 km (1,860 mi) from east to west. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km (9,445 mi) and a coastline of 7,517 km (4,671 mi).

The Ganges is the longest river originating in India and forms the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The Ganges-Brahmaputra system occupies most of northern, central and eastern India, while the Deccan Plateau occupies most of southern India. Along its western frontier is the Thar Desert, which is the seventh-largest desert in the world.

Physiographic Regions:
India is divided into seven physiographic regions. The northern mountains including the Himalayas, which includes the Kuen Lun and the Karakoram ranges and the northeast mountain ranges.

Indo-Gangetic plains

Thar Desert

Central Highlands and Deccan Plateau

East Coast

West Coast

Bordering seas and islands


Last Updated on Sunday, 09 May 2010 22:41